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-Three classic theories of the cause of behavior -showing page 1 out of 1

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Three classic theories of the cause of behavior
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Mentalism
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Origins in ancient greece, over 2000 years ago
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The mind (psyche) is the source of all human behavior, and life in general
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Consciousness, perceptions, emotions, imagination, opinions,
desires, pleasures, pain, memory, etc.
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Psyche was considered a nonmaterial entity independent of the body
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Dualism
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Originated with Descartes in his 1664 “Treatise on Man”
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Suggested the nonmaterial mind resides in the pineal gland and is separate
from the body, but that the mind and body “must be joined to constitute
people”
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Most activities of the body and brain, such as motion, digestion,
and breathing, could be explained by mechanical and physical
properties
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Mind-body problem:
what is the mechanism for a nonmaterial
mind and a physical brain to interact?
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Materialism
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Originated in the mid-nineteenth century with theories of evolution
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All being, processes and phenomena can be explained as manifestations of
physical matter
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Suggests behavior can be fully explained by workings of the brain and the
rest of the nervous system without explanatory reference to an immaterial
mind
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Monism vs. dualism
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Contemporary view, but some concepts and notions of Mentalism and
Dualism remain
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Methods in behavioral neuroscience
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Empirical investigations of brain and behavior
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Examine the effects of brain damage
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Examine the effects of stimulating or inhibiting a brain area
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Record brain activity during behavior
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Correlate brain anatomy and/or function with behavior
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Animal research in behavioral neuroscience
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Reasons for studying animals include:
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The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and
often easier to study in nonhuman species
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What we learn about nonhuman animals sheds light on human evolution
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Some experiments cannot use humans because of legal or ethical reasons
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We are interested in animals for their own sake